Types of open standards for data

Open standards for data are reusable agreements that make it easier for people and organisations to publish, access, share and use better quality data.

There are thousands of open standards in use around the world. We have divided them into three broad categories.

Open standards can fall into a single category or draw features from multiple categories to achieve their aims.

Types of open standards for data

There are thousands of open standards for data in use every day around the world. To help make sense of them, we grouped standards according to their main purpose and products.

With open standards for data, you can:

  • share vocabularies and common language using common models, attributes and definitions, with outputs like: registers, taxonomies, vocabularies and ontologies

  • exchange data within and between organisations and systems using common formats and shared rules, with outputs like: specifications, schemas and templates

  • provide guidance and recommendations for sharing better quality data, understanding processes and information flow, with outputs like: models, protocols, and guides

All open standards share common features, for example being available for anyone to access, use or share. Depending on the purpose and products of a given open standard, some features are more relevant than others. For example, it is important when using a data exchange standard to check that data has been produced correctly by checking the data against the standard’s rules.

This isn’t necessary for standards focused on guidance or a shared vocabulary because using these standards doesn’t produce new data.

Standards to share vocabulary

A shared vocabulary helps people and organisations communicate the concepts, people, places, events or things that are important to meet their needs or solve their problems.

A good shared vocabulary focuses on a specific area and uses clear, unambiguous definitions of the words and concepts it contains.

Shared vocabularies range from simple lists of words and their meaning to more complex products. The complexity of a vocabulary depends on the complexity of the problem being solved.

Typical vocabulary formats include:

  • registers comprising authoritative lists

  • taxonomies that group things together

  • vocabularies that are collections of defined words

  • ontologies that describe concepts and relationships

With a shared vocabulary, you can standardise:

  • concepts that represent important information, for example ‘education’, ‘crime’, or ‘procurement’

  • words used in the context of the problem being solved, for example ‘school’, ‘court’, or ‘contract’

  • attributes that are properties of people, places, events or things, and give us more information about them, for example a person’s name

  • relationships between people, places, events or things, for example ‘married to’, or ‘manufactured by’

  • standard codes or identifiers that identify people, places, events or things, for example ‘postal codes’, ‘passport numbers’, or ‘vehicle registration numbers’

  • units of measurement that describe how quantities are measured, for example ‘inches’, ‘centimeters’, or ‘centigrade’

  • models that describe people and organisations operating in an area, and the relationships between them based on how information flows

Shared vocabularies are frequently used with data exchange standards to produce better quality data that is easy to analyse and interpret.

Examples of shared vocabularies:

Standards to exchange data

Open standards can support better quality data by providing rules on what to share and how to share it.

Standards for exchanging data specify common formats and shared rules that lead to consistent data. A good standard for data exchange solves a specific problem and provides tools to check that data has been properly structured.

Typical data exchange standards define a common format for data that describes how data should be serialised or structured for sharing. Or it might combine common formats, shared vocabularies and other rules to describe what data should be shared to solve a specific problem.

For data exchange, you can standardise:

  • formats that describe how data is structured for sharing or storage, for example file and data formats like csv, json and xml

  • data types that describe how values related to people, places, events or things are expressed, for example a person’s name is text, their age is a whole number

  • data transfers that define the rules on sharing, exchanging or providing access to information, for example an API to find some data, or complete a transaction

  • rules that describe what data to share, the schemas, formats and shared vocabularies to use and other rules needed to solve a specific problem in a template or specification

  • maps that describes how models are expressed as data exchange formats – for example mapping the output of a smart city concept model to a data exchange format that information systems can read and write

Examples of data exchange standards:

  • General Transit Feed Specification (GFTS) is the worldwide de facto standard for publishing, accessing, sharing and using public transport information

  • CSV is the plain text format for structuring data files using rows and columns

Standards for guidance

An open standard that provides guidance helps people and organisations understand and document information flows and data models needed to solve their problem.

A good guidance standard focuses on providing a framework and recommendations for capturing data and promoting understanding within an area or sector.

With a standard for guidance, you can standardise:

  • units and measures we use to help us collect data, for example, centigrade, latitude and longitude, and meters

  • processes that describe protocols or methods for measuring, capturing or sharing data consistently, for example, statistical methods like sampling populations

  • codes of practice that supports consistent data practices, for example, best practices, recommendations, and other guidance

Examples of guidance standards:

  • BSI PAS 182 Smart city concept model helps decision-makers and organisations that provide services in cities remove barriers to sharing information

  • OpenEHR is the international standard for building flexible health data repositories that can be used with any vendor

Standards can be mixed and matched

We grouped open standards by their main purpose and outputs, however many open standards draw features from one or more categories to achieve their goals.

We can standardise
Shared vocabulary Words Agreeing on definitions for the words we use to communicate, e.g. ‘school’, ‘court’, or ‘contract’
Shared vocabulary Models An agreed way of thinking about the types of data that we want to exchange, e.g. a concept map or an entity relationship model
Shared vocabulary Taxonomies How we classify and describe things, e.g. codes and categories
Shared vocabulary Identifiers The identifiers we agree to use to help us describe people, place, things and concepts in our data, e.g. a company number
Data exchange File formats The file formats we use to store and publish information, e.g. JSON, CSV, or XML
Data exchange Schemas The rules for how to use a file format to exchange some data, e.g. how to use a CSV file to share planning data
Data exchange Data types How we consistently write down different types of data, e.g. date, time and currency formats
Data exchange Data transfers The methods by which we exchange information or provide access to it, e.g. an API to find some data, or complete a transaction
Guidance How we collect data How we consistently measure values and observe data, e.g. how to record a temperature reading, or measure a value in an experiment
Guidance Units and measures The units and measurements we use to help us collect data, e.g. centigrade, lat/long, meters, etc
Guidance Codes of practice Best practices, recommendations, and other guidance that supports consistent data practices

Many standards for exchanging data reuse existing standards, for example, a list from a shared vocabulary or a data format that describe how data is structured for sharing or storage.

More complex shared vocabularies like ontologies, can reference simpler shared vocabularies like lists, for example, Popolo, the international open government data specifications standard reuses the list of genders from the vCard format specification rather than creating a new list. Standards for guidance can help people and organisations design models to be used with existing standards.

We can standardise Source: The Open Data Institute

For example, the Brownfield Site Register Open Data Standard for sites in England, suitable for residential redevelopment, includes shared vocabularies like agreements on specific words, taxonomies, identifiers and units. The standard uses a CSV format that describes how data is structured for publication. The Water Point Data Exchange Standard (WPDx) uses existing geospatial and ISO standards and extends them for specialist use by their community.

How to use this guide

There are a number of ways for you to learn more about the creation, development and adoption of open standards for data.

About this guide

This guidebook helps people and organisations create, develop and adopt open standards for data. It supports a variety of users, including policy leads, domain experts and technologists.

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